1156 - Siege of Shirakawa-den in Japan.
1302 - Battle of the Golden Spurs (Guldensporenslag in Dutch) – a coalition around the Flemish cities defeats the king of France's royal army.
1346 - Charles IV of Luxembourg is elected emperor of the Holy Roman Empire.
1405 - Ming admiral Zheng He sets sail to explore the world for the first time.
1476 - Giuliano della Rovere is appointed bishop of Coutances.
1576 - Martin Frobisher sights Greenland.
1616 - Samuel de Champlain returns to Quebec.
1735 - Mathematical calculations suggest that it is on this day that dwarf planet Pluto moved inside the orbit of Neptune for the last time before 1979.
1740 - Pogrom: Jews are expelled from Little Russia.
1750 - Halifax, Nova Scotia is almost completely destroyed by fire.
1776 - Captain James Cook begins his third voyage.
1789 - Jacques Necker is dismissed as France's Finance Minister sparking the Storming of the Bastille.
1796 - The United States takes possession of Detroit from Great Britain under terms of the Jay Treaty.
1798 - The United States Marine Corps is re-established; they had been disbanded after the American Revolutionary War.
1801 - French astronomer Jean-Louis Pons made his first comet discovery. In the next 27 years he discovered another 36 comets, more than any other person in history.
1804 - Vice President of the United States Aaron Burr mortally wounds former Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton in a duel.
1848 - Waterloo railway station in London opens.
1859 - A Tale of Two Cities by Charles Dickens is published.
1864 - American Civil War: Battle of Fort Stevens; Confederate forces attempt to invade Washington, D.C..
1882 - The British Mediterranean fleet begins the Bombardment of Alexandria in Egypt as part of the 1882 Anglo-Egyptian War.
1889 - Tijuana, Mexico, is founded.
1893 - The first cultured pearl is obtained by Kokichi Mikimoto.
1893 - A revolution led by the liberal general and politician, José Santos Zelaya, takes over state power in Nicaragua.
1895 - The Lumière brothers demonstrate film technology to scientists.
1897 - Salomon August Andrée leaves Spitsbergen to attempt to reach the North pole by balloon. He later crashes and dies.
1906 - The Gillette-Brown murder inspires Theodore Dreiser's An American Tragedy.
1914 - Babe Ruth makes his debut in Major league baseball.
1919 - The eight-hour working day and free Sunday become law in the Netherlands.
1921 - A truce is called in the Irish War of Independence; see Irish calendar.
1921 - Former U.S. President William Howard Taft is sworn in as 10th Chief Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court, becoming the only person to ever be both President and Chief Justice.
1921 - Outer Mongolia gains its independence from the Republic of China.
1922 - The Hollywood Bowl opens.
1936 - The Triborough Bridge in New York City is opened to traffic.
1940 - World War II: Vichy France regime is formally established. Henri Philippe Pétain becomes Prime Minister of France.
1943 - Massacres of Poles in Volhynia.
1943 - World War II: Allied invasion of Sicily – German and Italian troops launch a counter-attack on Allied forces in Sicily.
1944 - Franklin D. Roosevelt announces that he will run for a fourth term as President of the United States.
1947 - The Exodus 1947 heads to Palestine from France.
1950 - Pakistan joins the International Monetary Fund and the International Bank.
1955 - The phrase In God We Trust is added to all U.S. currency.
1957 - Prince Karim Husseini Aga Khan IV inherits the office of Imamat as the 49th Imam of Shia Imami Ismaili worldwide, after the death of Sir Sultan Mahommed Shah Aga Khan III.
1960 - Independence of Benin, Burkina Faso and Niger.
1960 - To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee is first published.
1962 - First transatlantic satellite television transmission.
1971 - Copper mines in Chile are nationalized.
1973 - A Brazilian Boeing 707 crashes near Paris on approach to Orly Airport, killing 123 of the 134 on-board.
1977 - Martin Luther King Jr. is posthumously awarded the Medal of Freedom.
1978 - Los Alfaques Disaster: A truck carrying liquid gas crashes and explodes at a coastal campsite in Tarragona, Spain killing 216 tourists.
1979 - America's first space station, Skylab, is destroyed as it re-enters the Earth's atmosphere over the Indian Ocean.
1983 - A Boeing 727 crashes into hilly terrain after a tail strike in Cuenca, Ecuador, claiming 119 lives.
1987 - According to the United Nations, the world population crosses the 5,000,000,000 (5 billion) mark.
1990 - Oka Crisis: First Nations land dispute in Quebec, Canada begins.
1991 - A Nationair DC-8 crashes during an emergency landing at Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, killing 261. The Canadian charter flight was ferrying Hajj pilgrims on behalf of Nigeria Airways.
1995 - Full diplomatic relations are established between the United States and Vietnam.
1995 - A Cubana de Aviacion Antonov An-24 crashes into the Caribbean off southeast Cuba killing 44 people.
1995 - Over 8000 Bosnian men and children (mostly Bosniaks) are killed by Serbian troops commanded by Ratko Mladic in Potocari near Srebrenica Bosnia and Herzegovina.
2006 - 209 people are killed in a series of bomb attacks in Mumbai, India.