Israel: Holocaust and Heroism Remembrance Day
1230 AD - Bulgarian tsar Ivan Asen II defeats Theodore of Epirus in the Battle of Klokotnitsa.
1276 - Augsburg becomes an Imperial Free City.
141 BC - Liu Che, posthumously known as Emperor Wu of Han, assumes the throne over the Han Dynasty of China.
1500 - The fleet of Pedro Alvares Cabral leaves Lisbon for the Indies. The fleet will discover Brazil which lies within boundaries granted to Portugal in the Treaty of Tordesillas.
1566 - David Rizzio, the private secretary to Mary I of Scotland, is murdered in the Palace of Holyroodhouse, Edinburgh, Scotland.
1765 - After a campaign by the writer Voltaire, judges in Paris posthumously exonerate Jean Calas of murdering his son. Calas had been tortured and executed in 1762 on the charge, though his son may have actually committed suicide.
1796 - Napoléon Bonaparte marries his first wife, Joséphine de Beauharnais.
1841 - The U.S. Supreme Court rules that captive Africans who had seized control of the ship carrying them had been taken into slavery illegally.
1842 - Giuseppe Verdi's third opera Nabucco receives its première performance in Milan; its success establishes Verdi as one of Italy's foremost opera writers.
1847 - Mexican-American War: The first large-scale amphibious assault in U.S. history is launched in the Siege of Veracruz
1862 - American Civil War: The USS;Monitor and CSS Virginia fight to a draw in the Battle of Hampton Roads, the first fight between two ironclad warships.
1896 - Prime Minister Francesco Crispi resigns following the Italian defeat at the Battle of Adowa.
1908 - Inter Milan is founded.
1910 - The Westmoreland County Coal Strike, involving 15,000 coal miners represented by the United Mine Workers, begins.
1916 - Pancho Villa leads nearly 500 Mexican raiders in an attack against Columbus, New Mexico.
1925 - Pink's War: The first Royal Air Force operation conducted independently of the British Army or Royal Navy begins.
1933 - Great Depression: President Franklin D. Roosevelt submits the Emergency Banking Act to the Congress, the first of his New Deal policies.
1944 - World War II: Japanese troops counter-attack American forces on Hill 700 in Bougainville in a battle that would last five days.
1954 - McCarthyism: CBS television broadcasts the See It Now episode, "A Report on Senator Joseph McCarthy", produced by Fred Friendly.
1956 - Soviet military suppresses mass demonstrations in the Georgian SSR, reacting to Khrushchev's de-Stalinization policy.
1957 - A magnitude 8.3 earthquake in the Andreanof Islands, Alaska triggers a Pacific-wide tsunami causing extensive damage to Hawaii and Oahu.
1959 - The Barbie doll makes its debut at the American International Toy Fair in New York.
1967 - Trans World Airlines Flight 553, a Douglas DC-9-15, crashes in a field in Concord Township, Ohio following a mid-air collision with a Beechcraft Baron, killing 26.
1976 - Forty-two people die in the 1976 Cavalese cable-car disaster, the worst cable-car accident to date.
1977 - The Hanafi Muslim Siege: In a thirty-nine hour standoff, armed Hanafi Muslims seize three Washington, D.C., buildings, killing two and taking 149 hostage.
1989 - A strike forces financially-troubled Eastern Air Lines into bankruptcy.
1990 - Dr. Antonia Novello is sworn in as Surgeon General of the United States, becoming the first female and Hispanic American to serve in that position.
1991 - Massive demonstrations are held against Slobodan Milošević in Belgrade. Two people are killed and tanks are in the streets.
1993 - Rodney King testifies against the four LAPD officers accused of violating his civil rights when they beat him during his 1991 arrest.
1997 - Comet Hale-Bopp: Observers in China, Mongolia and eastern Siberia are treated to a rare double feature as an eclipse permits Hale-Bopp to be seen during the day.