1201 - The city of Riga is founded.
1541 - A Portuguese ship drifts ashore in the ancient Japanese province of Higo (modern day Kumamoto Prefecture). (Traditional Japanese date: July 27, 1541)
1572 - Marriage in Paris of the future Huguenot King Henry IV of Navarre to Marguerite de Valois, in a supposed attempt to reconcile Protestants and Catholics.
1587 - Virginia Dare, granddaughter of governor John White of the Colony of Roanoke, becomes the first English child born in the Americas.
1590 - John White, the governor of the Colony of Roanoke, returns from a supply trip to England and finds his settlement deserted.
1634 - Urbain Grandier, accused and convicted of sorcery, is burned alive in Loudun, France.
1636 - The Covenant of the Town of Dedham, Massachusetts is first signed.
1838 - The Wilkes Expedition, which would explore the Puget Sound and Antarctica, weighs anchor at Hampton Roads in 1838
1848 - Camila O'Gorman and Ladislao Gutierrez are executed on the orders of Argentine dictator Juan Manuel de Rosas.
1862 - Minnesota trader Andrew Myrick is killed and has his mouth stuffed with grass.
1864 - American Civil War: Battle of Globe Tavern – Union forces try to cut a vital Confederate supply-line into Petersburg, Virginia, by attacking the Weldon Railroad.
1868 - French astronomer Pierre Jules César Janssen discovers helium.
1870 - Franco-Prussian War: Battle of Gravelotte is fought.
1877 - Asaph Hall discovers Martian moon Phobos.
1891 - Major hurricane strikes Martinique, leaving 700 dead.
1903 - German engineer Karl Jatho allegedly flies his self-made, motored gliding airplane four months before the first flight of the Wright Brothers.
1904 - Chris Watson resigns as Prime Minister of Australia and is succeeded by George Reid.
1909 - Mayor of Tokyo Yukio Ozaki presents Washington, D.C. with 2,000 cherry trees, which President Taft decides to plant near the Potomac River.
1917 - A Great Fire in Thessaloniki, Greece destroys 32% of the city leaving 70,000 individuals homeless.
1920 - The Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution is ratified, guaranteeing women's suffrage.
1938 - The Thousand Islands Bridge, connecting New York State, United States with Ontario, Canada over the St. Lawrence River, is dedicated by U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt.
1941 - Adolf Hitler orders a temporary halt to Nazi Germany's systematic euthanasia of the mentally ill and the handicapped due to protests.
1950 - Julien Lahaut, the chairman of the Communist Party of Belgium is assassinated by far-right elements.
1958 - Vladimir Nabokov's controversial novel Lolita is published in the United States.
1963 - American civil rights movement: James Meredith becomes the first black person to graduate from the University of Mississippi.
1965 - Vietnam War: Operation Starlite begins – United States Marines destroy a Viet Cong stronghold on the Van Tuong peninsula in the first major American ground battle of the war.
1966 - Vietnam War: the Battle of Long Tan occurs, when a patrol of 6th Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment encounter the Viet Cong.
1969 - Jimi Hendrix plays the unofficial last day of Woodstock.
1971 - Vietnam War: Australia and New Zealand decide to withdraw their troops from Vietnam.
1976 - In the Korean Demilitarized Zone at Panmunjeom, the Axe Murder Incident results in the death of two US soldiers.
1977 - Steve Biko is arrested at a police roadblock under the Terrorism Act No 83 of 1967 in King William's Town, South Africa. He would later die of the injuries sustained during this arrest bringing attention to South Africa's apartheid policies.
1982 - Japanese election law is amended to allow for proportional representation.
1983 - Hurricane Alicia hits the Texas coast, killing 22 people and causing over USD $1 billion in damage (1983 dollars).
1989 - Leading presidential hopeful Luis Carlos Galán is assassinated near Bogotá in Colombia.
1992 - Wang Laboratories files for bankruptcy.
2000 - A Federal jury finds the US EPA guilty of discrimination against Dr. Marsha Coleman-Adebayo, under the Civil Rights Act of 1964, later inspiring passage of the No FEAR Act.
2005 - Dennis Rader is sentenced to 175 years in prison for the BTK serial killings.
2005 - Massive power blackout hits the Indonesian island of Java, affecting almost 100 million people.
2008 - President Of Pakistan Pervez Musharaf resigned due to pressure from opposition.
293 BC - The oldest known Roman temple to Venus is founded, starting the institution of Vinalia Rustica.