Slovakia: Struggle for Freedom and Democracy Day
1183 - Battle of Mizushima.
1292 - (O.S.) John Balliol becomes King of Scotland.
1493 - Christopher Columbus lands on Puerto Rico.
1511 - Spain and England ally against France.
1558 - Elizabethan era begins: Queen Mary I of England dies and is succeeded by her half-sister Elizabeth I of England.
1603 - English explorer, writer and courtier Sir Walter Raleigh goes on trial for treason.
1659 - Peace of the Pyrenees is signed between France and Spain.
1771 - Premiere in Milan of the opera Ascanio in Alba, composed by Wolfgang Mozart, age 15.
1777 - Articles of Confederation are submitted to the states for ratification.
1796 - Napoleonic Wars: Battle of Arcole – French forces defeat the Austrians in Italy.
1800 - The United States Congress holds its first session in Washington, D.C.
1811 - José Miguel Carrera, Chilean founding father, is sworn in as President of the executive Junta of the government of Chile.
1812 - Napoleonic Wars: Battle of Krasnoi.
1820 - Captain Nathaniel Palmer becomes the first American to see Antarctica (the Palmer Peninsula is later named after him).
1827 - The Delta Phi fraternity, America's oldest continuous social fraternity, is founded at Union College in Schenectady, New York.
1831 - Ecuador and Venezuela are separated from Greater Colombia.
1855 - David Livingstone becomes the first European to see the Victoria Falls in what is now present-day Zambia-Zimbabwe.
1856 - American Old West: On the Sonoita River in present-day southern Arizona, the United States Army establishes Fort Buchanan in order to help control new land acquired in the Gadsden Purchase.
1858 - Modified Julian Day zero.
1863 - American Civil War: Siege of Knoxville begins – Confederate forces led by General James Longstreet place Knoxville, Tennessee under siege.
1869 - In Egypt, the Suez Canal, linking the Mediterranean Sea with the Red Sea, is inaugurated in an elaborate ceremony.
1871 - The National Rifle Association is granted a charter by the state of New York.
1876 - Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky's patriotic Slavonic March is given its première performance in Moscow, to a warm reception by the Russian people.
1878 - First assassination attempt against Umberto I of Italy.
1903 - The Russian Social Democratic Labor Party splits into two groups; the Bolsheviks (Russian for "majority") and Mensheviks (Russian for "minority").
1905 - The Eulsa Treaty is signed between Japan and Korea.
1911 - The Omega Psi Phi fraternity, the first African-American fraternity at a historically black college or university, is founded at Howard University in Washington, D.C.
1919 - King George V of the United Kingdom proclaims Armistice Day (later Remembrance Day). The idea is first suggested by Edward George Honey.
1922 - Former Ottoman sultan Mehmed VI goes into exile in Italy.
1933 - United States recognizes Soviet Union.
1939 - Nine Czech students are executed as a response to anti-Nazi demonstrations prompted by the death of Jan Opletal. In addition, all Czech universities are shut down and over 1200 Czech students sent to concentration camps.
1939 - The Rome-Rio de Janeiro air route is created.
1947 - The U.S. Screen Actors Guild implements an anti-Communist loyalty oath.
1947 - American scientists John Bardeen and Walter Brattain observed the basic principles of the transistor, a key element for the electronics revolution of the 20th Century.
1950 - Tenzin Gyatso, the 14th Dalai Lama, is enthroned as the leader of Tibet at the age of fifteen.
1953 - The remaining human inhabitants of the Blasket Islands, Kerry, Ireland are evacuated to the mainland.
1962 - President John F. Kennedy dedicates Dulles International Airport, serving the Washington, D.C. region.
1967 - Vietnam War: Acting on optimistic reports he is given on November 13, US President Lyndon B. Johnson tells his nation that, while much remained to be done, "We are inflicting greater losses than we're taking...We are making progress."
1968 - British European Airways introduces the BAC One-Eleven into commercial service.
1968 - Alexandros Panagoulis is condemned to death for attempting to assassinate Greek dictator George Papadopoulos.
1969 - Cold War: Negotiators from the Soviet Union and the United States meet in Helsinki to begin SALT I negotiations aimed at limiting the number of strategic weapons on both sides.
1970 - Luna program: The Soviet Union lands Lunokhod 1 on Mare Imbrium (Sea of Rains) on the Moon. This is the first roving remote-controlled robot to land on another world and is released by the orbiting Luna 17 spacecraft.
1970 - Vietnam War: Lieutenant William Calley goes on trial for the My Lai massacre.
1970 - Douglas Engelbart receives the patent for the first computer mouse.
1973 - Watergate scandal: In Orlando, Florida, US President Richard Nixon tells 400 Associated Press managing editors "I am not a crook".
1973 - The Athens Polytechnic Uprising against the military regime ends in a bloodshed in the Greek capital.
1974 - Aliança Operário-Camponesa (Worker-Peasant Alliance) founded in Portugal, as a front of PCP(m-l).
1979 - Brisbane Suburban Railway Electrification. The first stage from Ferny Grove to Darra commissioned.
1983 - The Zapatista Army of National Liberation is founded.
1989 - Cold War: Velvet Revolution begins: In Czechoslovakia, a student demonstration in Prague is quelled by riot police. This sparks an uprising aimed at overthrowing the communist government (it succeeds on December 29).
1990 - Fugendake, part of the Mount Unzen volcanic complex, Nagasaki prefecture, Japan becomes active again and erupts.
1997 - In Luxor, Egypt, 62 people are killed by 6 Islamic militants outside the Temple of Hatshepsut, known as Luxor massacre (The police then kill the assailants).
2000 - A catastrophic landslide in Log pod Mangartom, Slovenia, kills 7, and causes millions of SIT of damage. It is one of the worst catastrophes in Slovenia in the past 100 years.
2000 - Alberto Fujimori is removed from office as president of Peru.
2004 - Kmart Corp. announces it is buying Sears, Roebuck and Co. for $11 billion USD and naming the newly merged company Sears Holdings Corporation.
2005 - Italy's national anthem, Il Canto degli Italiani, becomes official for the first time, almost 60 years after it is provisionally chosen following the birth of the republic.
2007 - A Kern arc is first photographed near Vuokatti Ski Resort in Sotkamo, Finland.
284 - Diocletian is proclaimed emperor by his soldiers.