Today: Tuesday - 12 November 2019
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Today Holidays
Maldives: Republic Day
Azerbaijan: Constitution Day
East-Timor: Santa Cruz Day


1028 - Future Byzantine empress Zoe marries Romanus Argyrus according to the wishes of the dying Constantine VIII.
1439 - Plymouth, England, becomes the first town incorporated by the English Parliament.
1555 - The English Parliament re-establishes Catholicism.
1793 - Jean Sylvain Bailly, the first Mayor of Paris, is guillotined.
1847 - Sir James Young Simpson, a British physician, is the first to use chloroform as an anaesthetic.
1892 - William "Pudge" Heffelfinger becomes the first professional American football player on record, participating in his first paid game for the Allegheny Athletic Association.
1893 - The treaty of the Durand Line is signed between present day Pakistan and Afghanistan – the Durand Line has gained international recognition as an international border between the two nations.
1905 - (November 12 and November 13) Norway holds a referendum in favor of monarchy over republic.
1912 - The frozen bodies of Robert Scott and his men are found on the Ross Ice Shelf in Antarctica.
1918 - Austria becomes a republic.
1920 - Italy and the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes sign the Treaty of Rapallo.
1922 - The Sigma Gamma Rho sorority is founded on the campus of Butler University in Indianapolis, Indiana.
1927 - Leon Trotsky is expelled from the Soviet Communist Party, leaving Joseph Stalin in undisputed control of the Soviet Union.
1933 - Hugh Gray takes the first known photos of the Loch Ness Monster.
1936 - In California, the San Francisco – Oakland Bay Bridge opens to traffic.
1938 - Hermann Göring proposes plans to make Madagascar the "Jewish homeland", an idea that actually is first considered by 19th century journalist Theodor Herzl.
1941 - World War II: Temperatures around Moscow drop to -12 ° C and the Soviet Union launches ski troops for the first time against the freezing German forces near the city.
1941 - World War II: The Soviet cruiser "Chervona Ukraina" is destroyed during the Battle of Sevastopol.
1942 - World War II: The Naval Battle of Guadalcanal between Japanese and American forces begins near Guadalcanal, which would last for three days.
1944 - World War II: The Royal Air Force launches 29 Avro Lancaster bombers in one of the most successful precision bombing attacks of war and sinks the German battleship Tirpitz, with 12,000 lb Tallboy bombs off Tromsø, Norway.
1948 - In Tokyo, an international war crimes tribunal sentences seven Japanese military and government officials to death, including General Hideki Tojo, for their roles in World War II.
1958 - A team of rock climbers led by Warren Harding completes the first ascent of The Nose on El Capitan in Yosemite Valley.
1969 - Vietnam War: My Lai Massacre – Independent investigative journalist Seymour Hersh breaks the My Lai story.
1970 - The Oregon Highway Division attempts to destroy a rotting beached Sperm whale with explosives, leading to the now infamous exploding whale incident.
1970 - The 1970 Bhola cyclone makes landfall on the coast of East Pakistan becoming the deadliest tropical cyclone in history.
1971 - Vietnam War: As part of Vietnamization, US President Richard M. Nixon sets February 1, 1972 as the deadline for the removal of another 45,000 American troops from Vietnam.
1978 - As Bishop of Rome Pope John Paul II takes possession of his Cathedral Church, the Basilica of St. John Lateran.
1979 - Iran hostage crisis: In response to the hostage situation in Tehran, US President Jimmy Carter orders a halt to all petroleum imports into the United States from Iran.
1980 - The NASA space probe Voyager I makes its closest approach to Saturn and takes the first images of its rings.
1981 - Space Shuttle program: Mission STS-2, utilizing the Space Shuttle Columbia, marks the first time a manned spacecraft is launched into space twice.
1982 - In the Soviet Union, Yuri Andropov becomes the general secretary of the Soviet Communist Party's Central Committee, succeeding Leonid I. Brezhnev.
1982 - Lech Wałęsa, a Solidarity leader, is released from a Polish prison after eleven months.
1990 - Crown Prince Akihito is formally installed as Emperor Akihito of Japan, becoming the 125th Japanese monarch.
1990 - Tim Berners-Lee publishes a formal proposal for the World Wide Web.
1991 - Dili Massacre, Indonesian forces open fire on a crowd of student protesters in Dili, East Timor.
1993 - Decree of President of Kazakhstan "About introducing national currency of Republic of Kazakhstan" is issued.
1996 - A Saudi Arabian Airlines Boeing 747 and a Kazakh Ilyushin Il-76 cargo plane collide in mid-air near New Delhi, killing 349. The deadliest mid-air collision to date.
1997 - Ramzi Yousef is found guilty of masterminding the 1993 World Trade Center bombing.
1998 - Vice President of the United States Al Gore signs the Kyoto Protocol.
1998 - Daimler-Benz completes a merger with Chrysler to form Daimler-Chrysler.
1999 - The Düzce earthquake strikes Turkey with a magnitude of 7.2 on the Richter scale.
2001 - In New York City, American Airlines Flight 587, an Airbus A300 en route to the Dominican Republic, crashes minutes after takeoff from John F. Kennedy International Airport, killing all 260 on board and five on the ground.
2001 - Attack on Afghanistan: Taliban forces abandon Kabul, Afghanistan, ahead of advancing Afghan Northern Alliance troops.
2003 - Iraq war: In Nasiriya, Iraq, at least 23 people, among them the first Italian casualties of the 2003 Iraq war are killed in a suicide bomb attack on an Italian police base.
2003 - With 501;km/h (311 mph) Shanghai Transrapid sets up a new world record for commercial railway systems.
2006 - The region South Ossetia holds a referendum on independence from Georgia.



1 JanuaryNew Year's Day
9 JanuaryMartyrs' Day (Día de los Mártires)
2 MarchCarnival
2 MarchCarnival
6 MarchAsh Wednesday
19 AprilGood Friday
1 MayLabour Day
15 AugustFoundation of Panama City (Fundación de la Ciudad de Panamá)
3 NovemberIndependence Day
4 NovemberNational Flag's Day
10 NovemberFirst Shout of Independence from Spain (Primer Grito de Independencia de la Villa de los Santos)
28 NovemberIndependence Day
8 DecemberMother's Day
24 DecemberChristmas Eve
25 DecemberChristmas
31 DecemberNew Year's Eve
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Republic of Panama
República de Panama
Republic of Panama - FlagRepublic of Panama - Coat of arms
Republic of Panama - Location
Capital: Panama City
Official languages: Spanish
Government: Republic
Currency: Balboa (PAB)
Population: 3 293 000
Area: 78 200 km²
Religion: Catholicism (84%)
Time Zone: UTC -5
Auto Code: PA
Internet TLD: .pa
Calling code: +507
Corporate Income Tax: 30,00%
Personal Income Tax: 0-27%
Value Added Tax: 0/7%
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