1275 - Traditional founding of the city of Amsterdam.
1524 - Italian Wars: The French troops lay siege to Pavia.
1553 - Condemned as a heretic, Michael Servetus is burned at the stake just outside Geneva.
1644 - Second Battle of Newbury in the English Civil War.
1682 - Philadelphia, Pennsylvania is founded.
1795 - The United States and Spain sign the Treaty of Madrid, which establishes the boundaries between Spanish colonies and the U.S.
1806 - The French Army enters Berlin.
1810 - United States annexes the former Spanish colony of West Florida.
1838 - Missouri governor Lilburn Boggs issues the Extermination Order, which orders all Mormons to leave the state or be exterminated.
1870 - Marshal François Achille Bazaine surrenders to Prussian forces at Metz along with 140,000 French soldiers in one of the biggest French defeats of the Franco-Prussian War.
1904 - The first underground New York City Subway line opens; the system becomes the biggest in United States, and one of the biggest in world.
1916 - Battle of Segale: Negus Mikael, marching on the Ethiopian capital in support of his son Emperor Iyasus V, is defeated by Fitawrari abte Giyorgis, securing the throne for Empress Zauditu.
1922 - A referendum in Rhodesia rejects the country's annexation to the South African Union.
1924 - The Uzbek SSR is founded in the Soviet Union.
1936 - Mrs Wallis Simpson files for divorce which would eventually allow her to marry King Edward VIII of the United Kingdom, thus forcing his abdication from the throne.
1948 - Léopold Sédar Senghor founds the Senegalese Democratic Bloc (BDS).
1953 - British nuclear test Totem 2 is carried out at Emu Field, South Australia.
1954 - Benjamin O. Davis Jr. becomes the first African-American general in the United States Air Force.
1958 - Iskander Mirza, the first President of Pakistan, is deposed in a bloodless coup d'état by General Ayub Khan, who had been appointed the enforcer of martial law by Mirza 20 days earlier.
1961 - NASA launches the first Saturn I rocket in Mission Saturn-Apollo 1.
1962 - A plane carrying Enrico Mattei, post-war Italian administrator, crashes in mysterious circumstances.
1962 - Major Rudolf Anderson of the United States Air Force becomes the only direct human casualty of the Cuban Missile Crisis when his U-2 reconnaissance airplane is shot down in Cuba by a Soviet-supplied SA-2 Guideline surface-to-air missile.
1964 - Ronald Reagan delivers a speech on behalf of Republican candidate for president, Barry Goldwater. The speech launched his political career and came to be known as "A Time for Choosing".
1971 - The Democratic Republic of the Congo is renamed Zaire.
1973 - The Cañon City meteorite, a 1.4 kg chondrite type meteorite, strikes in Fremont County, Colorado.
1981 - The Soviet submarine U 137 runs aground on the east coast of Sweden.
1986 - The British government suddenly deregulates financial markets, leading to a total restructuring of the way in which they operate in the country, in an event now referred to as Big Bang.
1990 - Supreme Soviet of Kirghiz SSR chooses Askar Akayev as republic's first president.
1991 - Turkmenistan achieves independence from the Soviet Union.
1992 - United States Navy radioman Allen R. Schindler, Jr. is brutally murdered by shipmates for being gay, precipitating first military, then national, debate about gays in the military that resulted in the United States "Don't ask, don't tell" military policy.
1994 - The U.S. prison population tops 1 million for the first time in American history.