1227 - Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, is excommunicated by Pope Gregory IX for his failure to go on crusade.
1364 - Battle of Auray: English forces defeat the French in Brittany; end of the Breton War of Succession.
1567 - The second War of Religion in France breaks out.
1567 - At a dinner, the Duke of Alba arrests the Count of Egmont and the Count of Hoorn for treason.
1650 - Henry Robinson opens his Office of Addresses and Encounters – the first historically documented dating service – in Threadneedle Street, London.
1717 - An earthquake struck Antigua Guatemala, destroying much of the city's architecture and making authorities consider moving the capital to a different city.
1789 - The U.S. War Department first establishes a regular army with a strength of several hundred men.
1789 - The first U.S. Congress adjourns.
1829 - The Metropolitan Police of London, later also known as the Met, is founded.
1848 - Battle of Pákozd: Hungarian forces defeat Croats at Pákozd; the first battle of the War of Independence.
1850 - The Roman Catholic hierarchy is re-established in England and Wales by Pope Pius IX.
1864 - American Civil War: The Battle of Chaffin's Farm is fought.
1885 - The first practical public electric tramway in the world is opened in Blackpool, England.
1907 - The cornerstone is laid at Washington National Cathedral in the U.S. capital.
1911 - Italy declares war on the Ottoman Empire.
1916 - John D. Rockefeller becomes the first billionaire.
1918 - World War I: The Hindenburg Line is broken by Allied forces. Bulgaria signs an armistice.
1941 - World War II: Holocaust in Kiev, Ukraine: German Einsatzgruppe C starts Babi Yar massacre. According to the Einsatzgruppen Operational Situation Report No. 101, at least 33,771 Jews from Kiev and its suburbs are killed at Babi Yar on September 29 – 30, 1941.
1943 - World War II: U.S. General Dwight D. Eisenhower and Italian Marshal Pietro Badoglio sign an armistice aboard the Royal Navy battleship HMS Nelson off Malta.
1949 - The Communist Party of China writes the Common Programme for the future People's Republic of China.
1954 - The convention establishing CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research) is signed.
1954 - Major League Baseball: Willie Mays of the then New York Giants makes "The Catch" at The Polo Grounds in Game 1 of the World Series.
1957 - 20 MCi (740 petabecquerels) of radioactive material is released in an explosion at the Soviet Mayak nuclear plant at Chelyabinsk.
1960 - Nikita Khrushchev, leader of Soviet Union, disrupts a meeting of the United Nations General Assembly with a number of angry outbursts.
1962 - Alouette 1, the first Canadian satellite, is launched.
1963 - The second period of the Second Vatican Council opens.
1963 - The University of East Anglia is established in Norwich, England.
1964 - The Argentine comic strip Mafalda is published for the first time.
1966 - The Chevrolet Camaro, originally named Panther, is introduced.
1971 - Oman joins the Arab League.
1972 - Sino-Japanese relations: Japan establishes diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China after breaking official ties with the Republic of China.
1975 - WGPR in Detroit, Michigan, becomes the world's first black-owned-and-operated television station.
1979 - Pope John Paul II became the first pope to set foot on Irish soil with his pastoral visit to the Republic of Ireland.
1982 - 1982 Chicago Tylenol murders begin when the first of seven individuals dies in metropolitan Chicago.
1988 - Space Shuttle: NASA launches STS-26, the return to flight mission, after the Space Shuttle Challenger disaster.