1099 - First Crusade: Godfrey of Bouillon is elected the first Defender of the Holy Sepulchre of The Kingdom of Jerusalem.
1298 - Wars of Scottish Independence: Battle of Falkirk – King Edward I of England and his longbowmen defeat William Wallace and his Scottish schiltrons outside the town.
1456 - Ottoman Wars in Europe: Siege of Belgrade – John Hunyadi, Regent of Kingdom of Hungary defeats Mehmet II of Ottoman Empire
1484 - Battle of Lochmaben Fair – a 500-man raiding party led by Alexander Stewart, Duke of Albany and James Douglas, 9th Earl of Douglas are defeated by Scots forces loyal to Albany's brother James III of Scotland; Douglas is captured.
1499 - Battle of Dornach – the Swiss decisively defeat the Imperial army of Emperor Maximilian I.
1587 - Colony of Roanoke: a second group of English settlers arrive on Roanoke Island off North Carolina to re-establish the deserted colony.
1686 - Albany, New York is formally chartered as a municipality by Governor Thomas Dongan.
1793 - Alexander Mackenzie reaches the Pacific Ocean becoming the first Euro-American to complete a transcontinental crossing of Canada.
1796 - Surveyors of the Connecticut Land Company name an area in Ohio "Cleveland" after Gen. Moses Cleaveland, the superintendent of the surveying party.
1805 - Napoleonic Wars: War of the Third Coalition – Battle of Cape Finisterre – an inconclusive naval action is fought between a combined French and Spanish fleets under Admiral Pierre-Charles Villeneuve of Spain and a British fleet under Admiral Robert Calder.
1812 - Napoleonic Wars: Peninsular War – Battle of Salamanca – British forces led by Arthur Wellesley (later the Duke of Wellington) defeat French troops near Salamanca, Spain.
1864 - American Civil War: Battle of Atlanta – outside Atlanta, Georgia, Confederate General John Bell Hood leads an unsuccessful attack on Union troops under General William T. Sherman on Bald Hill.
1894 - First ever motorized racing event is held in France between the cities of Paris and Rouen. The race is won by Jules de Dion.
1916 - In San Francisco, California, a bomb explodes on Market Street during a Preparedness Day parade killing 10 and injuring 40.
1933 - Wiley Post becomes the first person to fly solo around the world traveling 15,596 miles in 7 days, 18 hours and 45 minutes.
1934 - Outside Chicago's Biograph Theatre, "Public Enemy No. 1" John Dillinger is mortally wounded by FBI agents.
1937 - New Deal: the United States Senate votes down President Franklin D. Roosevelt's proposal to add more justices to the Supreme Court of the United States.
1942 - The United States government begins compulsory civilian gasoline rationing due to the wartime demands.
1942 - Holocaust: the systematic deportation of Jews from the Warsaw Ghetto begins.
1943 - Allied forces capture the Italian city of Palermo.
1944 - The Polish Committee of National Liberation publishes its manifesto, starting the period of Communist rule in Poland
1946 - King David Hotel bombing: Irgun bombs King David Hotel in Jerusalem, headquarters of the British civil and military administration, killing 90.
1962 - Mariner program: Mariner 1 spacecraft flies erratically several minutes after launch and has to be destroyed.
1968 - Sir John Newsome recommends public schools should take 50% of their intake from the state school system
1976 - Japan completes its last reparation to the Philippines for war crimes committed in Japan's imperial conquest of the country in the Second World War
1977 - Chinese leader Deng Xiaoping is restored to power.
1983 - Martial law in Poland is officially revoked.
1992 - Near Medellín, Colombian drug lord Pablo Escobar escapes from his luxury prison fearing extradition to the United States.
1997 - The second Blue Water Bridge opens between Port Huron, Michigan and Sarnia, Ontario.
2002 - Israel assassinates Salah Shahade, the Commander-in-Chief of Hamas's military arm, the Izz ad-Din al-Qassam Brigades, along with 14 civilians.
2003 - Members of 101st Airborne of the United States, aided by Special Forces, attack a compound in Iraq, killing Saddam Hussein's sons Uday and Qusay, along with Mustapha Hussein, Qusay's 14-year old son, and a bodyguard.
2005 - Jean Charles de Menezes is killed by police as the hunt begins for the London Bombers. See 7 July 2005 London bombings and 21 July 2005 London bombings