1212 - The most severe of several early fires of London burns most of the city to the ground.
1460 - Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick defeats the king's Lancastrian forces and takes King Henry VI prisoner in the Battle of Northampton.
1553 - Lady Jane Grey takes the throne of England.
1584 - William I of Orange is assassinated in his home in Delft, Holland by Balthasar Gérard.
1645 - English Civil War: The Battle of Langport takes place.
1778 - American Revolution: Louis XVI of France declares war on the Kingdom of Great Britain.
1789 - Alexander Mackenzie reaches the Mackenzie River delta.
1806 - The Vellore Mutiny is the first instance of a mutiny by Indian sepoys against the British East India Company.
1821 - The United States takes possession of its newly bought territory of Florida from Spain.
1832 - U.S.President Andrew Jackson vetoes a bill that would re-charter the Second Bank of the United States.
1850 - Millard Fillmore is inaugurated as the 13th President of the United States upon the death of President Zachary Taylor, 16 months into his term.
1859 - Big Ben rings for the first time.
1877 - The then-villa of Mayagüez, Puerto Rico formally receives its city charter from the Royal Crown of Spain.
1890 - Wyoming is admitted as the 44th U.S. state.
1913 - Death Valley, California hits 134 °F (~56.7 °C), the highest temperature recorded in the United States.
1925 - Scopes Trial: In Dayton, Tennessee, the so-called "Monkey Trial" begins with John T. Scopes, a young high school science teacher accused of teaching evolution in violation of the Butler Act.
1925 - Meher Baba begins his silence of 44 years. His followers observe Silence Day on this date in commemoration.
1938 - Howard Hughes sets a new record by completing a 91 hour airplane flight around the world.
1940 - World War II: the Vichy government is established in France.
1940 - World War II: Battle of Britain – The German Luftwaffe begins attacking British convoys in the English Channel thus starting the battle (this start date is contested, though).
1941 - Jedwabne Pogrom: the massacre of Jewish people living in and near the village of Jedwabne in Poland.
1942 - Diplomatic relations between the Netherlands and the Soviet Union are established.
1943 - World War II: The launching of Operation Husky begins the Italian Campaign.
1947 - Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah is recommended as the first Governor General of Pakistan by then Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, Clement Attlee.
1951 - Korean War: Armistice negotiations begin at Kaesong.
1962 - Telstar, the world's first communications satellite, is launched into orbit.
1966 - The Chicago Freedom Movement, lead by Martin Luther King, holds a rally at Soldier Field in Chicago, Illinois. As many as 60,000 people came to hear Dr. King as well as Mahalia Jackson, Stevie Wonder, and Peter Paul and Mary.
1967 - Uruguay becomes a member of the Berne Convention copyright treaty.
1968 - Maurice Couve de Murville becomes Prime Minister of France.
1973 - The Bahamas gain full independence within the Commonwealth of Nations.
1973 - National Assembly of Pakistan passes a resolution on the recognition of Bangladesh.
1976 - One American and three British mercenaries are executed in Angola following the Luanda Trial.
1976 - The Seveso disaster occurs in Italy.
1978 - President Moktar Ould Daddah of Mauritania is ousted in a bloodless coup d'état.
1978 - World News Tonight premieres on ABC.
1980 - Alexandra Palace burns down for a second time.
1985 - Greenpeace vessel Rainbow Warrior is bombed and sunk in Auckland, New Zealand harbor by French DGSE agents.
1991 - Boris Yeltsin begins his 5-year term as the first elected President of Russia.
1991 - The South African cricket team is readmitted into the International Cricket Council following the end of Apartheid.
1992 - In Miami, Florida, former Panamanian leader Manuel Noriega is sentenced to 40 years in prison for drug and racketeering violations.
1997 - In London scientists report the findings of the DNA analysis of a Neandertal skeleton which support the "out of Africa theory" of human evolution placing an "African Eve" at 100,000 to 200,000 years ago.
1997 - Partido Popular (Spain) member Miguel Ángel Blanco is kidnapped in the Basque city of Ermua by ETA members, sparking widespread protests.
1998 - Roman Catholic sex abuse cases: The Diocese of Dallas agrees to pay $23.4 million to nine former altar boys who claimed they were sexually abused by former priest Rudolph Kos.
2000 - A leaking southern Nigerian petroleum pipeline explodes, killing about 250 villagers scavenging gasoline.
2000 - EADS, the world's second-largest aerospace group is formed by the merger of Aérospatiale-Matra, DASA, and CASA.
2002 - At a Sotheby's auction, Peter Paul Rubens' painting The Massacre of the Innocents is sold for £49.5million (US$76.2 million) to Lord Thomson.
2003 - A Neoplan bus, owned by Kowloon Motor Bus, collides with a truck, falls off a bridge on Tuen Mun Road, Hong Kong, and plunges into the underlying valley, killing 21 people. This is the deadliest traffic accident to date in Hong Kong.
2005 - Hurricane Dennis slams into the Florida Panhandle, causing billions of dollars in damage.
2006 - Pakistan International Flight PK-688 crashes in Multan, Pakistan, shortly after takeoff, killing all 45 people on board.
2008 - Former Macedonian Interior Minister Ljube Boškoski is acquitted of all charges by a United Nations Tribunal accusing him of war crimes.