1217 - The Estonian tribal leader Lembitu of Lehola is killed in a battle against Teutonic Knights.
1745 - Battle of Prestonpans: A Hanoverian army under the command of Sir John Cope is defeated, in ten minutes, by the Jacobite forces of Prince Charles Edward Stuart
1765 - Antoine de Beauterne announces he had killed the Beast of Gévaudan, but is later proved wrong by more attacks.
1780 - American Revolutionary War: Benedict Arnold gives the British the plans to West Point.
1792 - The National Convention declares France a republic and abolishes the monarchy.
1827 - Joseph Smith, Jr. is reportedly visited by the angel Moroni, who gave him a record of gold plates, one-third of which Smith has translated into The Book of Mormon.
1860 - In the Second Opium War, an Anglo-French force defeats Chinese troops at the Battle of Baliqiao.
1896 - British force under Horatio Kitchener takes Dongola in the Sudan.
1897 - The "Yes, Virginia, there is a Santa Claus" is published in the New York Sun.
1898 - Empress Dowager Cixi seizes power and ends the Hundred Days' Reform in China.
1921 - A storage silo in Oppau, Germany, explodes, killing 500—600 people.
1934 - A large typhoon hits western Honshū, Japan, killing 3,036 people.
1937 - J. R. R. Tolkien's The Hobbit is published.
1938 - The Great Hurricane of 1938 makes landfall on Long Island in New York. The death toll is estimated at 500-700 people.
1939 - Romanian Prime Minister Armand Calinescu is assassinated by ultranationalist members of the Iron Guard.
1942 - On Jewish holiday of Yom Kippur, Nazis sent over 1.000 Jews of Pidhaytsi (west Ukraine) to Belzec extermination camp.
1942 - On the end of Yom Kippur, the Germans ordered Konstantynów Jews (Poland) to permanently evacuate Konstantynów and move to the Ghetto – established in Biała Podlaska, meant to assemble Jews from nearby 7 towns among them: Konstantynów, Janów Podlaski, Rossosz, Terespol, and 3 more.
1942 - In Dunaivtsi, Ukraine, Nazis murder 2588 Jews.
1942 - The B-29 Superfortress makes its maiden flight.
1950 - George Marshall sworn in as the 3rd Secretary of Defense of United States.
1961 - Maiden flight of the CH-47 Chinook transportation helicopter.
1964 - Malta becomes independent from the United Kingdom.
1964 - The North American XB-70 Valkyrie, the world's first Mach 3 bomber, made its maiden flight from Palmdale, California.
1965 - Singapore admitted as a part of the United Nations.
1970 - New York Times starts first modern op-ed page.
1972 - Philippine President Ferdinand Marcos signs Proclamation No. 1081 placing the entire country under martial law.
1976 - Orlando Letelier is assassinated in Washington, D.C. He is a member of the Chilean socialist government of Salvador Allende, overthrown in 1973 by Augusto Pinochet.
1979 - Two RAF Hawker Siddeley Harrier jump-jets from RAF Wittering collide over the UK. Both pilots ejected safely. One of the jets broke up in midair and fell harmlessly into a field but the other dropped onto the centre of Wisbech in Cambridgeshire, destroying two houses and a bungalow. Several people are injured in the accident and three people are killed.
1980 - Kerry GAA beat Roscommon GAA in Croke Park during the All-Ireland Football Final by 1-9 to 1-6 thus winning the championship and a three-in-a-row.
1981 - Belize is granted full independence from the United Kingdom.
1981 - Sandra Day O'Connor is unanimously approved by the U.S. Senate as the first female supreme court justice.
1986 - Kerry GAA beat Tyrone GAA in Croke Park during the All-Ireland Football Final by 2-15 to 1-10 thus winning the championship and a three-in-a-row.
1989 - Hurricane Hugo makes landfall in the U.S. state of South Carolina.
1991 - Armenia is granted independence from Soviet Union.
1993 - Russian President Boris Yeltsin suspends parliament and scraps the then-functioning constitution, thus triggering the Russian constitutional crisis of 1993.
1995 - The Hindu milk miracle occurs, in which statues of the Hindu god Ganesh began drinking milk when spoonfuls are placed near their mouths.
1999 - Chi-Chi earthquake occurs in central Taiwan, leaving about 2,400 people dead.
2001 - Deep Space 1 flies within 2,200;km of Comet Borrelly.
2001 - AZF chemical plant explodes in Toulouse, France, killing 31 people
2001 - University of Roorkee, becomes India's 7th Indian Institute of Technology, rechristened as IIT Roorkee
2003 - Galileo mission terminated by sending the probe into Jupiter's atmosphere, where it is crushed by the pressure at the lower altitudes.
2004 - The Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist) People's War and the Maoist Communist Centre of India merge to form the Communist Party of India (Maoist).
2004 - Construction of the Burj Dubai starts.
2008 - Goldman Sachs and Morgan Stanley, the two last remaining independent investment banks on Wall Street, become bank holding companies as a result of the subprime mortgage crisis.
2008 - President Thabo Mbeki of South Africa resigns from office, effective September 25.
2008 - Prime Minister Ehud Olmert of Israel formally resigns from office, effective as soon as his successor Tzipi Livni has successfully assembled a new government.
2008 - The final home game is played at Yankee Stadium against the Baltimore Orioles.