1096 - Turkish army annihilates the People's Army of the West, People's Crusade
1512 - Martin Luther joins the theological faculty of the University of Wittenberg.
1520 - Ferdinand Magellan discovers a strait now known as Strait of Magellan.
1600 - Tokugawa Ieyasu defeats the leaders of rival Japanese clans in the Battle of Sekigahara, which marks the beginning of the Tokugawa shogunate, who in effect rule Japan until the mid-nineteenth century.
1774 - First display of the word "Liberty" on a flag, raised by colonists in Taunton, Massachusetts in defiance of British rule in Colonial America.
1797 - In Boston Harbor, the 44-gun United States Navy frigate USS Constitution is launched.
1805 - Napoleonic Wars: Battle of Trafalgar: A British fleet led by Admiral Lord Nelson defeats a combined French and Spanish fleet off the coast of Spain under Admiral Villeneuve. It signalled the virtual end of French maritime power and left Britain navally unchallenged until the twentieth century.
1805 - Napoleonic Wars: Austrian General Mack surrenders his army to the Grand Army of Napoleon at Ulm, reaping Napoleon over 30,000 prisoners and inflicting 10,000 casualties on the losers. Ulm is considered to be one of Napoleon's finest hours.
1816 - The Penang Free School is founded in George Town, Penang, Malaysia, by the Rev Hutchings. It is the oldest English-language school in Southeast Asia.
1824 - Joseph Aspdin patents Portland cement.
1854 - Florence Nightingale and a staff of 38 nurses are sent to the Crimean War.
1861 - American Civil War: Battle of Ball's Bluff – Union forces under Colonel Edward Baker are defeated by Confederate troops in the second major battle of the war. Baker, a close friend of Abraham Lincoln, is killed in the fighting.
1867 - Manifest Destiny: Medicine Lodge Treaty – Near Medicine Lodge, Kansas a landmark treaty is signed by southern Great Plains Indian leaders. The treaty requires Native American Plains tribes to relocate a reservation in western Oklahoma.
1879 - Using a filament of carbonized thread, Thomas Edison tests the first practical electric incandescent light bulb (it lasted 13½ hours before burning out).
1892 - Opening ceremonies for the World's Columbian Exposition are held in Chicago, though because construction was behind schedule, the exposition did not open until May 1, [1893.
1895 - The Republic of Formosa collapses as Japanese forces invade.
1902 - In the United States, a five month strike by United Mine Workers ends.
1912 - During the First Balkan War, Kardzhali is liberated by Bulgarian forces
1921 - President Warren G. Harding delivers the first speech by a sitting President against lynching in the deep south. George Melford's silent film, The Sheik, starring Rudolph Valentino, premiers.
1944 - The first kamikaze attack: HMAS Australia is hit by a Japanese plane carrying a 200;kg (441 pound) bomb off Leyte Island, as the Battle of Leyte Gulf began.
1945 - Women's suffrage: Women are allowed to vote in France for the first time.
1945 - Argentine military officer and politician Juan Perón married actress Evita.
1959 - In New York City, the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum opens to the public. It was designed by Frank Lloyd Wright.
1959 - US President Dwight D. Eisenhower signs an executive order transferring Wernher von Braun and other German scientists from the United States Army to NASA.
1965 - Comet Ikeya-Seki approaches perihelion, passing 450,000 kilometers from the sun.
1966 - Aberfan disaster: A coal tip falls on the village of Aberfan in Wales, killing 144 people, mostly schoolchildren.
1967 - Vietnam War: More than 100,000 war protesters gather in Washington, DC. A peaceful rally at the Lincoln Memorial is followed by a march to The Pentagon and clashes with soldiers and United States Marshals protecting the facility. Similar demonstrations occurred simultaneously in Japan and Western Europe.
1969 - A coup d'état in Somalia brings Siad Barre to power.
1973 - John Paul Getty III's ear is cut off by his kidnappers and sent to a newspaper in Rome; it doesn't arrive until November 8.
1973 - Fred Dryer of the then Los Angeles Rams becomes the first player in NFL history to score two safeties in the same game.
1977 - The European Patent Institute is founded.
1978 - Australian civilian pilot Frederick Valentich vanishes in a Cessna 182 over the Bass Strait south of Melbourne, after reporting contact with an unidentified aircraft.
1979 - Moshe Dayan resigns from the Israeli government because of strong disagreements with Prime Minister Menachem Begin over policy towards the Arabs.
1983 - The metre is defined at the seventeenth General Conference on Weights and Measures in terms of the speed of light as the distance light travels in a vacuum in 1/299,792,458 of a second.
1986 - In Lebanon, pro-Iranian kidnappers claim to have abducted American writer Edward Tracy (he is released in August 1991).
1987 - Jaffna hospital massacre is carried out by Indian Peace Keeping Force in Sri Lanka killing 70 ethnic Tamil patients, Doctors & Nurses.
1990 - The first Apple Day, is held in Covent Garden, London.
1994 - North Korea nuclear weapons program: North Korea and the United States sign an agreement that requires North Korea to stop its nuclear weapons program and agree to inspections.
1994 - In Seoul, 32 people are killed when the Seongsu Bridge collapses.
1995 - Dayton Agreement The General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
2003 - Images of the dwarf planet Eris are taken and subsequently used in its discovery by the team of Michael E. Brown, Chad Trujillo, and David L. Rabinowitz.